Safety

Set Implicit Arguments.

Require Import LibLN.
Require Import Coq.Program.Equality.
Require Import Binding CanonicalForms Definitions GeneralToTight InvertibleTyping Narrowing
            OperationalSemantics PreciseTyping RecordAndInertTypes Substitution Weakening.

The typing of a term with a stack
Inductive sta_trm_typ : sta * trm -> typ -> Prop :=
| sta_trm_typ_c : forall G s t T,
    inert G ->
    well_typed G s ->
    G t : T ->
    sta_trm_typ (s, t) T.

Hint Constructors sta_trm_typ.

Notation "'⊢' t ':' T" := (sta_trm_typ t T) (at level 40, t at level 59).

Preservation

If a value v has type T, then v has a precise type T' that is a subtype of T. This lemma corresponds to Lemma 3.15 in the paper.
Lemma val_typing: forall G v T,
  G trm_val v : T ->
  exists T', G ⊢!v v : T' /\
        G T' <: T.
Proof.
  intros G v T H. dependent induction H; eauto.
  destruct (IHty_trm _ eq_refl). destruct_all. eauto.
Qed.

Helper tactics for proving Preservation

Ltac binds_eq :=
  match goal with
  | [Hb1: binds ?x _ ?G,
     Hb2: binds ?x _ ?G |- _] =>
     apply (binds_func Hb1) in Hb2; inversions Hb2
  end.

Ltac invert_red :=
  match goal with
  | [Hr: (_, _) |-> (_, _) |- _] => inversions Hr
  end.

Ltac solve_IH :=
  match goal with
  | [IH: well_typed _ _ ->
         inert _ ->
         forall t', (_, _) |-> (_, _) -> _,
       Wf: well_typed _ _,
       In: inert _,
       Hr: (_, _) |-> (_, ?t') |- _] =>
    specialize (IH Wf In t' Hr); destruct_all
  end;
  match goal with
  | [Hi: _ & ?G' _ : _ |- _] =>
    exists G'; repeat split; auto
  end.

Ltac solve_let :=
  invert_red; solve_IH; fresh_constructor; eauto; apply* weaken_rules.

s: G
inert [G] #<br># [(s, t) |-> (s', t')] #<br># [G t: T] #<br># [―――――――――――――――――――] #<br># [exists G', inert G'] #<br># [s': G, G'] #<br># [G, G' t': T]
Lemma preservation_helper: forall G s t s' t' T,
    well_typed G s ->
    inert G ->
    (s, t) |-> (s', t') ->
    G t : T ->
    exists G', inert G' /\
          well_typed (G & G') s' /\
          G & G' t' : T.
Proof.
  introv Hwf Hin Hred Ht. gen t'.
  induction Ht; intros; try solve [invert_red].
  - Case "ty_all_elim".
    match goal with
    | [Hx: _ trm_var (avar_f _) : typ_all _ _ |- _] =>
        pose proof (canonical_forms_fun Hin Hwf Hx) as [L [T' [t [Bis [Hsub Hty]]]]];
          inversions Hred;
          binds_eq
    end.
    exists (@empty typ). rewrite concat_empty_r. repeat split; auto.
    pick_fresh y. assert (y \notin L) as FrL by auto. specialize (Hty y FrL).
    eapply renaming_typ; eauto.
  - Case "ty_new_elim".
    pose proof (canonical_forms_obj Hin Hwf Ht) as [S [ds [t [Bis [Has Ty]]]]].
    invert_red. binds_eq.
    exists (@empty typ). rewrite concat_empty_r. repeat split; auto.
    match goal with
    | [Hd: defs_has _ (def_trm _ ?t') |- G t': T] =>
      rewrite* <- (defs_has_inv Has Hd)
    end.
  - Case "ty_let".
    destruct t; try solve [solve_let].
    + SCase "[t = (let x = a in u)] where a is a variable".
      repeat invert_red.
      exists (@empty typ). rewrite concat_empty_r. repeat split; auto.
      apply* renaming_fresh.
    + SCase "[t = (let x = v in u)] where v is a value".
      repeat invert_red.
      match goal with
        | [Hn: ?x # ?s |- _] =>
          pose proof (well_typed_notin_dom Hwf Hn) as Hng
      end.
      pose proof (val_typing Ht) as [V [Hv Hs]].
      exists (x ~ V). repeat split.
      ** rewrite <- concat_empty_l. constructor~. apply (precise_inert_typ Hv).
      ** constructor~. apply (precise_to_general_v Hv).
      ** eapply renaming_fresh with (L:=L \u dom G \u \{x}). apply* ok_push.
         intros. apply* weaken_rules. apply ty_sub with (T:=V); auto. apply* weaken_subtyp.
  - Case "ty_sub".
    solve_IH.
    match goal with
    | [Hs: _ _ <: _,
       Hg: _ & ?G' _: _ |- _] =>
      apply weaken_subtyp with (G2:=G') in Hs;
      eauto
    end.
Qed.

Preservation Theorem

(s, t): T
(s, t) |-> (s', t')
―――――――――――――――――――
(s', t'): T
Theorem preservation : forall s s' t t' T,
     (s, t) : T ->
    (s, t) |-> (s', t') ->
     (s', t') : T.
Proof.
  introv Ht Hr. destruct Ht as [* Hi Hwf Ht].
  lets Hp: (preservation_helper Hwf Hi Hr Ht). destruct Hp as [G' [Hi' [Hwf' Ht']]].
  apply sta_trm_typ_c with (G:=G & G'); auto. apply* inert_concat.
Qed.

Progress

Helper tactic for proving progress
Ltac solve_let_prog :=
  match goal with
      | [IH: (?s, ?t) : ?T ->
             inert _ ->
             well_typed _ _ -> _,
         Hi: inert _,
         Hwt: well_typed _ _ |- _] =>
        assert ( (s, t): T) as Hs by eauto;
        specialize (IH Hs Hi Hwt) as [IH | [s' [t' Hr]]];
        eauto; inversion IH
      end.

Progress Theorem

(s, t): T
(s, t) |-> (s', t')
―――――――――――――――――――
t is in normal form
or exists s', t' such that (s, t) |-> (s', t')
Theorem progress: forall s t T,
     (s, t) : T ->
    norm_form t \/ exists s' t', (s, t) |-> (s', t').
Proof.
  introv Ht. inversion Ht as [G s' t' T' Hi Hwt HT]. subst.
  induction HT; eauto.
  - Case "ty_all_elim".
    pose proof (canonical_forms_fun Hi Hwt HT1). destruct_all. right*.
  - Case "ty_new_elim".
    pose proof (canonical_forms_obj Hi Hwt HT). destruct_all. right*.
  - Case "ty_let".
    right. destruct t; try solve [solve_let_prog].
    + pose proof (var_typing_implies_avar_f HT) as [x A]. subst*.
    + pick_fresh x. exists (s & x ~ v) (open_trm x u). auto.
Qed.